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Sughauli Treaty of 1815: Full Text

Page history last edited by editor 8 years, 11 months ago

The page contains the original translations of the Sughauli Treaty and other treaties and memorandum that followed this Treaty. For analysis and articles regarding this Treaty, please visit this page.

 


 

The Sughauli Treaty


The text below is from the initially proposed treaty that was delivered on March 4th 1816 to Nepal Darbar:

 

Treaty of Peace between the Honourable East India Company and Maha Rajah Bikram Sah, Rajah of Nipal, settled between Lieutenant-Colonel Bradshaw on the part of the Honourable Company, in virtue of the full powers vested in him by His Excellence the Right Honourable Francis Earl of Moira Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, one of His Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, appointed by the Court of Directors of the said Honourable Company to direct and control all affairs in the East Indies, and by Sree Gooroo Gujraj Misser and Chunder Seeker Opedeea on the part of Maha Rajah Girmaun Jode Bikran Sah Bahadur, Shumsheer Jung, in virtue of the powers to that effect vested in them by the said Rajah of Nipal, 2nd December 1815.

 

Whereas war has arisen between the Honourable East India Company and the Rajah of Nipal, and whereas the parties are mutually disposed to restore the relations of peace and amity which, previously to the occurrence of the late differences, had long subsisted between the two States, the following terms of peace have been agreed upon:

 

Article - I

There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between the Honourable East India Company and the King of Nepal.

 

Article - II

The Rajah of Nipal renounces all claim to the lands which were the subject of discussion between the two States before the war, and acknowledges the right of the Honourable Company to the sovereignty of those lands.

 

Article - III

The Rajah of Nipal hereby cedes to the Honourable the East India Company in perpetuity all the under-mentioned territories, viz-

 

First: – The whole of the lowlands between the Rivers Kali and Rapti.

Secondly: – The whole of the low lands (with the exception of Bootwul Khass) lying between the Rapti and the Gunduck.

Third:– The whole of the lowlands between the Gunduck and Coosah, in which the authority of the British Government has been introduced, or is in actual course of introduction.

Fourth:– All the low lands between the Rivers Mitchee and the Teestah.

Fifth:– All the territories within the hills eastward of the River Mitchee including the fort and lands of Nagree and the Pass of Nagarcote leading from Morung into the hills, together with the territory lying between that pass and nagerr. The aforesaid territory shall be evacuated by the Gurkha troops within forty days from this date.

 

Article - IV

With a view to indemnify the Chiefs and Barahdars of the State of Nipal, whose interests will suffer by the alienation of the lands ceded by the foregoing Article, the British Government agrees to settle pensions to the aggregate amount of two lakhs of rupees per annum on such Chiefs as may be selected by the Rajah of Nipal, and in the proportions which the Rajah may fix. As soon as the selection is made, Sunnuds shall be granted under the seal and signature of the Governor General for the pensions respectively.

 

Article - V

The Rajah of Nipal renounces for himself, his heirs, and successors, all claim to or connextion with the countries lying to the west of the River Kali and engages never to have any concern with those countries or the inhabitants there of.

 

Article - VI

The Rajah of Nipal engages never to molest to disturb the Rajah of Sikkim in the possession of his territories; but agrees, if any difference shall arise between the State of Nipal and the Rajah of Sikkim, or the subjects of either, that such differences shall be referred to the arbitration of the British Government by which award the Rajah of Nipal engages to abide.

 

Article - VII

The Rajah of Nipal hereby engages never to take of retain in his service any British subject, nor the subject of any European or American State, without the consent of the British Government.

 

Article - VIII

In order to secure and improve the relations of amity and peace hereby established between the two States, it is agreed that accredited Ministers from each shall reside at the Court of the other.

 

Article - IX

This treaty, consisting of nine Articles, shall be ratified by the Rajah of Nipal within fifteen days from this date, and the ratification shall be delivered to Lieutenant-Colonel Bradshaw, who engages to obtain and deliver the ratification of the Governor-General within twenty days, or sooner, if practicable. Done at Segowlee, on the 2nd day of December 1815. PARIS BRADSHAW, Lt. Col., P.A. Received this treaty from Chunder Seekur Opedeea, Agent on the part of the Rajah Nipal, in the valley of Muckwaunpoor, at half-past two o’clock p.m. on the 4th of March 1816, and delivered to him the Counterpart Treaty on behalf of the British Government.

 

Note

  • Nipal - Nepal
  • Bootwul - Butwal
  • Gunduck - Gandak
  • Coosah - Kushaha
  • Mitchee - Mechi
  • Teestah - Teesta River
  • Nagarcote - Nagarkot
  • Morung - Morang District
  • Sugowlee - Sugauli
  • Chander Seekur Opedeea - Chandra Shekhar Upadhya

 

Memorandum for the approval and acceptance of the Raja of Nipal


The following was presented to the Raja on Dec 8th, 1816 after Raja of Nepal was distasteful of some of the articles:

 

Adeverting to the amity and confidence subsisting with the Rajah of Nepal, the British Govt proposes to suppress, as much as it is possible, the execution of certain Articles in the Treaty of Segowlee, which bear hard upon the Rajah, as follows:

 

2. With a view to gratify the Rajah in a point which he has much at heart, the British Govt is willing to restore the Terai ceded to it by the Rajah in the Treaty, to wit, the whole Terai lands lying between the Rivers Coosa and Gunduck [nullifies Article-3 point three], such as appertained to the Rajah before the late disagreement; excepting the disputed lands in the Zillahs of Tirhoot and Sarun, and excepting such portions of territory as may occur on both sides for the purpose of settling a frontier, upon investigation by the respective commissioners; and excepting such lands as may have been given in possession to any one by the British Govt upon ascertainment of his rights subsequent to the cession of Terai to that Government. In case the Rajah is desirous of retaining the lands of such ascertained proprietors, they may be exchanged for others, and let it be clearly understood that notwithstanding the considerable extent of the lands in the Zillah of Tirhoot, which have for a long time been a subject of dispute, the settlement made in the year of 1812 of Christ, corresponding with the year 1869 of Bikramajeet, shall be taken, and everything else relinquished, that is to say, that the settlement and negotiations, such as occured at that period shall in the present case hold good and be established.

 

3. The British Govt is willing likewise to restore the Terai lying between the Rivers Gunduk and Rapti, that is to say, from the River Gunduk to the western limits of the Zillah of Goruckpore, together with Bootwul and Sheeraj [nullifies Article-3 point two], such as appertained to Nipal previous to the disagreements, complete, with the exception of the disputed places in the Terai, and such quantity of ground as may be considered mutually to be requisite for the new boundary.

 

4. As it is impossible to established desirable limits between the two States without the survey, it will be expedient that Commissioners be appointed on both sides for the purpose of arranging in concert a well defined boundary on the basis of the preceding terms, and of establishing a straight line of frontier, with a view to the distinct separation of the respective territories of the British Government to the south and of Nipal to the north; and in case any indentations occur to destroy the even tenor of the line, the Commissioners should effect and exchange of lands so interfering on principles of clear reciprocity.

 

5. And should it occur that the proprietors of lands situated on the mutual frontier, as it may be rectified, whether holding of the British Govt or of the Rajah of Nipal, should be placed in the condition of subjects of both Govts, with a view to prevent continual dispute and discussion between the 2 govt, the respective Commissioners should effect in mutual concurrence and co-operation the exchange of such lands, so as to tender them subject to one dominion alone.

 

6. Whensover the Terai should be restored, the Rajah of Nipal will cease to require the sum of 2 lakhs of Rupees per annum, which the British Govt agreed the advance for the maintenance of certain Barahars of his Government.

 

7. Moreover, the Rajah of Nipal agrees to refrain from prosecuting any inhabitants of the Terai, after its revertance to his rule, on account of having favored the cause of the British Govt during the war, and should any of those persons, excepting the cultivators of the soil, the desirous quitting their estates, and for retiring within the Company's territories, he shall not be liable to hindrance.

 

8. In the even of the Rajah's approving the foregoing terms, the proposed arrangement for the survey and establishment of boundary marks shall be carried into execution, and after the determination in concert of the boundary line, Sunnuds conformable to the foregoing stipulations, drawn out and sealed by the two States, shall be delivered and accepted on both sides.

(Sd.) Edward Gardner

Resident

(A true translation)

(Sd. G Wellesley

Assistant

 

Substance of a Letter under the Seal of the Raja of Nipal


This letter was sent by the Raja and received by the British on Dec 11, 1816:

 

After compliment;

 

I have comprehended the document under date the 8th of December 1816... which you transmitted relative to the restoration, with a view to my friendship and satifaction, of the Terai between the Rivers Coosa and Rapti to the southern boundary complete, such as appertained to my estate previous to the war. It mentioned that in the event of my accepting the terms contained in that document, the southern boundary of the Terai should be established as it was held by the Govt. I have accordingly agreed to the terms laid down by you, and herewith enclose an instrument of agreement, which may be satisfactory to you. Moreover, it was written in the document transmitted by you, that it should be restored, with the exception of the disputed lands and such portion of land as should, in the opinion of the Commissioners on both sides, occur fo rthe purpose of settling a boundary: and excepting the lands which, after the cessions of the Terai to the Honourable Company, may have have been transmitted by it to the ascertained proprietors. My friend, all these matters rest with you, and since it was also written that a view was had to my friendship and satisfaction with respect to certain Articles of the Treaty of Segowlee, which bore hard upon me, and which could be remitted, I am well assured that you have at heart the removal of whatever may tend to my distress, and that you will act in a manner corresponding to the advantage of this State and the increase of the friendly relations subsisting between the two Govt. 

 

Moreover I have to acknowledge the receipt of the orders under the red seal of this State, addressed to the officers of Terai between the Rivers Gunduk and Rapti, for the surrender of that Terai, and their retiring from thence, which was given to you at Thankote, according to your request, and which you have now returned for my satisfaction.

(A true translation)

(Sd.) G Wellesley

Assistant

 

 

 

Substance of a Document under the Red Seal, received from the Durbar on Dec 11, 1816


The following was the attached document by the Raja:

 

With regard to friendship and amity, the GoN agrees to the tenor of the document under the 8th December 1816... which was received by the Darbar from the Honourable Edward Gardner on the part of the Honourable Company, respecting the revertance of the Terai between the Rivers Coosa and Rapti to the former southern boundary, such as appertained to Nipal previous to the war with exception of the disputed lands.

 

Dated the 7th of Poos 1873 Sambat.

(A true translation)

(Sd.) G. Wellesley

Assistant

 

Treaty with Nipal, November 1, 1860


During the disturbances which followed the mutiny of the Native army of Bengal in 1857, the Maharaja of Nipal not only faithfully maintained the relations of peace and friendship established between the British Govt and the State of Nipal by the Treaty of Segowlee, but freely placed troops at the disposal of the British authorities for the preservation of order in the Frontier Districts, and subsequently sent a force to cooperate with the British Army in the re-capture of Lucknow and the final defeat of the rebels. On the conclusion of these operations, the Viceroy and Governor-General in recognition of the eminent services rendered to restore the Maharaja the whole of the lowlands lying between the River Kali and the District of Goruckpoer, which belonged to the State of Nipal in 1815 and were ceded to the British Government in that year by the aforesaid Treaty. These lands have now been identified by the Commissioners appointed for the purpose by the British Govt, in the presence of Commissioners deputed by the Nipal Darbar; masonry pillars have been erected to mark the future boundary of the two States, and the territory has been formally delivered over to the Nepalese authorities. In order the more more firmly to secure the State of Nipal in the pepetual possession of this territory, and to mark in a solemn way the occasion of its restoration, the following Treaty has been concluded between the two States.

 

Article 1: All Treaties and Engagements now in force between the British Government and the Maharaja of Nipal, except in so far they may be altered by the Treaty, are hereby confirmed.

 

Article 2: The British Govt hereby bestows on the Mhaharaj of Nipa in full sovereignty, the whole of the lowlands between teh Rivers Kali and Raptee, and the whole of the lowlands lying between the River Raptee and teh District of Goruckpore, which were in the possession of the Nipal State in the year 1815, and were ceded to the British Government by Article III of the Treaty concluded at Segowlee on teh 2nd of December in that year.

 

Article 3: The boundary line surveyed by the British Commissioners appointed for the purpose extenseding eastward from teh River kali and Sardah to the foot of teh hills north of Bagowra Tal, and marked by pillars, shall henceforth be the boundary between the British Province of Oudh and the Territories of the Maharajah of Nipal.

 

This Treaty, signed by Lt-Colonel George Ramsey, on the part of his Excellency the Right Hnbl Charles John, Earl Canning, G.C.B., Viceroy and Governor-General of India, and by Maharajah Dheraj Soorinder Vikram Sah Bahadoor Shumshere Jung, shall be ratified, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at Khatmandoo within thirty days of the date of signature.

 

Signed and sealed of Khatmandoo, the First day of Nov, 1860 AD corresponding to the 3rd day of Kartick Budee, Sumbut 1917.

(Sd.) G. Ramsey, Lt-colonel

Resident at Nipal

 

(Sd.) Canning

Viceroy and Governor-General

 

This Treaty was ratified by His Excellency the Governor-General, at Calcutta on the 15th of Nov 1860.

(Sd.) A.R. Young

Deputy Secretary to the Govt of India

 

 

Reference


 

Boundaries of Nepal altered by the Sughauli Treaty:[1] (Need to find/create a more detailed map)

Land Ceded by Nepal in Sughauli SandhiSource 

Footnotes

  1. http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_x-oBW2veq98/TOGmqWAHXLI/AAAAAAAAAEQ/gn1cvfBdJqY/s1600/800px-Sugauli_Treaty2.png

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